Table of Contents
- Pulling from a registry
- From Docker image to Dockerfile
- Getting Shell Access
- Extracting Files
- Dumping the entire filesystem
I'm not a big fan of Docker. Every time I try to use it I get confused, frustrated and annoyed and end up spinning up another VM with vagrant instead. But there's no denying it's becoming more popular and more and more organizations are relying on it.
On a recent pentest, my coworker and I came across credentials to the organization's private Docker registry. I didn't know much (and admittedly still don't) about Docker, but I knew there had to be some juicy files and keys in their Docker images if I could pull them down and sift through them. After looking up Docker commands and scouring SO answers, I ended up getting source code and admin SSH keys from the docker images. I figured I'd share the steps I took for others to reference.
We discovered a URL to a private Docker registry and some plaintext credentials. I hadn't used registries before, so I had to look up how they worked and how to access them. I ended up using this cheatsheet which proved invaluable. From the cheatsheet:
A repository is a hosted collection of tagged images that together create the file system for a container.
A registry is a host – a server that stores repositories and provides an HTTP API for managing the uploading and downloading of repositories.
The registry we discovered had the URL of:
https://registry.example.com/v2 and required Basic authentication.
To view a list of images in the registry, append "_catalog" to the URL and it will spit out JSON of all the repository and image names:
Looking the list, we saw some potentially sensitive images, including one called "admin".
Pulling from a registry
Quick side note: as much as I love running things from my Mac, Docker is a major pain to run from Mac and requires a VM anyway. Instead, I installed Docker on an Ubuntu VM I had laying around
To pull down an image from a private registry, you first have to use the Docker 'login' command to authenticate. We had the username/password already, so we entered it and were good to go:
[email protected]:~$ docker login https://registry.example.com/v2/ Username: <username> Password: <password> Email: <not necessary> WARNING: login credentials saved in /home/rflathers/.docker/config.json Login Succeeded
Note: as Docker nicely warns you, creds are saved in plaintext in config.json. Something to keep in mind during post-exploitation looting
Once Docker has logged in to the repository, you can then do a
docker pull to download the image to your host. You have to include the full registry name or Docker will search its public registry for the image. For example, to pull an image named "admin":
[email protected]:~$ docker pull registry.example.com/admin Using default tag: latest latest: Pulling from admin abcde9a29090: Pull complete abcdefafa841: Pull complete abcde18745c9: Pull complete abcde3ccebb3: Pull complete abcde8d47f87: Pull complete abcde15b336e: Pull complete abcdefe71cfb: Pull complete abcdebdf2761: Pull complete abcdef84677a: Pull complete abcdefc04499: Pull complete abcde54eb3fe: Pull complete abcde656c3a9: Pull complete abcde78fc125: Pull complete abcde2baef4c: Pull complete eabcde3df887: Pull complete 8f4abcde66dc: Pull complete e7ceabcde9ea: Pull complete 9515abcde66e: Pull complete Digest: sha256:64dff123453abcde712cef8895465d822308932abcde32a60b776c6cb578751 Status: Downloaded newer image for registry.example.com/admin:latest
At this point, the image is downloaded and can be run and containerized. I'm not going to go into running Docker containers here, because I wasn't interested in getting it to run - I just wanted to pillage files from the image.
From Docker image to Dockerfile
It is possible to derive a Dockerfile from a Docker Image using a publicly available image named, appropriately, dockerfile-from-image. This is an easy way to see if any custom scripts or commands are added on to the base image.
You have to install this image on the same host and then point it to the image you want the docker file created from. Their readme has you create a useful alias as well:
$ docker pull centurylink/dockerfile-from-image $ alias dfimage="docker run -v /var/run/docker.sock:/var/run/docker.sock --rm centurylink/dockerfile-from-image" $ dfimage --help Usage: dockerfile-from-image.rb [options] <image_id> -f, --full-tree Generate Dockerfile for all parent layers -h, --help Show this message
Now to run it, give it the image ID of the one pulled from the private registry. To see a list of imaged IDs, use
docker images. The ID or full name both work:
[email protected]:~$ dfimage -f 95247d7abcde
Getting Shell Access
To explore the image and discover files, it's usually easiest to just get an interactive shell and explore the filesystem. To do this, you don't actually need to "run" the container for it's main purpose, you can just tell Docker to execute /bin/bash. This will create a container from the image (remember: containers and images are different) and then drop you into a pseudo-TTY.
[email protected]:~$ docker run -i -t --entrypoint /bin/bash 95158d7abcde #image ID [email protected]:/$ hostname f03f4abcdef #now in shell in container
Now you can pillage whatever is in the image. On this particular engagment there were bootstrap scripts (I saw them in the Dockerfile created above) that performed git operations to private repositories. It authenticated over SSH and there was a private key located at "/home/admin/.ssh/id_rsa".
Re-attaching to exited container. Once you exit the session, the container will be exited. If you do
docker run again on the image, a new container will be created and you will "lose" any work or files you created in the old container. To re-attach to the previous container you were in, you have to re-start it and then run
First you need to find out the container ID you were working in. Running
docker ps -a will show all exited containers, with the most recent on top. Alternatively, the following command will spit out the ID of the last container created (useful for expansion in commands):
[email protected]:~$ docker ps -l -q 417c6a8abcde
Now to get a shell on that container ID again, we restart it and then exec /bin/bash:
[email protected]:~$ docker start 417c6a8abcde && docker exec -i -t 417c6a8abcde /bin/bash
Or, to be fancy with expansions and do it in one command:
[email protected]:~$ docker start $(docker ps -l -q) && docker exec -i -t $(docker ps -l -q) /bin/bash
The easiest ways to get a file from a running container is the docker cp command. Since I wanted to just run the command once, as I was exploring the container with shell access I just copied everything I wanted to /tmp/loot and tgz'd it up into one file (
When you exit the shell session, the container is exited also, but any files you created are still accessible in the container. To pull files from a container, you nee the container ID, which can be found by running
docker ps -a. If you just exited, it should be the top one (or just run
docker ps -l -q to see the last container):
[email protected]:~$ docker ps -a CONTAINER ID IMAGE COMMAND CREATED STATUS PORTS NAMES f03f4fdabcde 95158d7abcde "/bin/bash" 4 minutes ago Exited (0) 4 seconds ago backstabbing_bardeen
Let's say you have a loot file at /tmp/loot/myloot.tar.gz. Exit the container and note it's container ID. To pull out the file from the container to the host:
[email protected]:~$ docker cp f03f4fdabcde:/tmp/loot/myloot.tar.gz ./myloot.tar.gz
This will copy the file from the container to your local host.
If you don't need to work with a specific container and know the location of the file you want, you can create a container and cp the file all in one command:
[email protected]:~$ docker cp $(docker create registry.example.com/admin):/home/admin/.ssh/id_rsa ./admin_ssh_key
Dumping the entire filesystem
It should also be possible to extract the entire filesystem from a Docker container should you not want to explore via shell and copy out individual files. The docker save and export commands will dump an image or a container to a tarball (respectively).
Unfortunately, these tarballs are really only useful to Docker. However, there is a tool called "undocker" (https://github.com/larsks/undocker/) which can extract a useful filesystem from these images. See here for a writeup from the author:
I haven't actually tried this tool yet as I didn't need the full filesystem anyway, but if you've used it or have another recommendation please comment!